He was the eldest of ten surviving siblings; two died of typhoid. Joyce's godparents were Philip and Ellen McCann. John Stanislaus Joyce's family came from Fermoy in County Cork , and had owned a small salt and lime works.
Around this time Joyce was attacked by a dog, leading to his lifelong cynophobia. He suffered from astraphobia ; a superstitious aunt had described thunderstorms as a sign of God's wrath.
The Irish Party had dropped Parnell from leadership. But the Vatican's role in allying with the British Conservative Party to prevent Home Rule left a lasting impression on the young Joyce. In November, John Joyce was entered in Stubbs' Gazette a publisher of bankruptcies and suspended from work.
In , John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty caused mainly by his drinking and financial mismanagement. This came about because of a chance meeting his father had with a Jesuit priest called John Conmee who knew the family and Joyce was given a reduction in fees to attend Belvedere.
He became active in theatrical and literary circles in the city. In his laudatory review of Henrik Ibsen 's When We Dead Awaken was published in The Fortnightly Review ; it was his first publication and, after learning basic Norwegian to send a fan letter to Ibsen, he received a letter of thanks from the dramatist. Joyce wrote a number of other articles and at least two plays since lost during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin appeared as characters in Joyce's works.
His closest colleagues included leading figures of the generation, most notably, Tom Kettle , Francis Sheehy-Skeffington and Oliver St. Joyce was first introduced to the Irish public by Arthur Griffith in his newspaper, United Irishman , in November Joyce had written an article on the Irish Literary Theatre and his college magazine refused to print it.
Joyce had it printed and distributed locally. Griffith himself wrote a piece decrying the censorship of the student James Joyce. Richard Ellmann suggests that this may have been because he found the technical lectures in French too difficult. Joyce had already failed to pass chemistry in English in Dublin. But Joyce claimed ill health as the problem and wrote home that he was unwell and complained about the cold weather.
Fearing for her son's impiety, his mother tried unsuccessfully to get Joyce to make his confession and to take communion. She finally passed into a coma and died on 13 August, James and his brother Stanislaus having refused to kneel with other members of the family praying at her bedside. He scraped together a living reviewing books, teaching, and singing—he was an accomplished tenor , and won the bronze medal in the Feis Ceoil.
He decided, on his twenty-second birthday, to revise the story into a novel he called Stephen Hero. It was a fictional rendering of Joyce's youth, but he eventually grew frustrated with its direction and abandoned this work. It was never published in this form, but years later, in Trieste, Joyce completely rewrote it as A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
The unfinished Stephen Hero was published after his death. On 16 June they had their first outing together, they walked to the Dublin suburb of Ringsend , where Nora masturbated him. This event was commemorated by providing the date for the action of Ulysses as " Bloomsday ". After one of his drinking binges, he got into a fight over a misunderstanding with a man in St Stephen's Green ;  he was picked up and dusted off by a minor acquaintance of his father, Alfred H.
Hunter, who took him into his home to tend to his injuries. John Gogarty, who informed the character for Buck Mulligan in Ulysses. After six nights in the Martello Tower that Gogarty was renting in Sandycove, he left in the middle of the night following an altercation which involved another student he lived with, the unstable Dermot Chenevix Trench Haines in Ulysses , who fired a pistol at some pans hanging directly over Joyce's bed.
Shortly after, the couple left Ireland to live on the continent. It later became evident that the agent had been swindled; the director of the school sent Joyce on to Trieste , which was then part of Austria-Hungary until the First World War , and is today part of Italy.
Once again, he found there was no position for him, but with the help of Almidano Artifoni, director of the Trieste Berlitz School, he finally secured a teaching position in Pola , then also part of Austria-Hungary today part of Croatia.
He stayed there, teaching English mainly to Austro-Hungarian naval officers stationed at the Pola base, from October until March , when the Austrians—having discovered an espionage ring in the city—expelled all aliens. With Artifoni's help, he moved back to Trieste and began teaching English there.
He remained in Trieste for most of the next ten years. Joyce persuaded his brother, Stanislaus, to join him in Trieste, and secured a teaching position for him at the school. Joyce sought to augment his family's meagre income with his brother's earnings. He disliked Rome and returned to Trieste in early His daughter Lucia was born later that year.
He visited Nora's family in Galway and liked Nora's mother very much. He spent a month in Trieste before returning to Dublin, this time as a representative of some cinema owners and businessmen from Trieste.
With their backing he launched Ireland's first cinema, the Volta Cinematograph , which was well-received, but fell apart after Joyce left. He returned to Trieste in January with another sister, Eileen, in tow. His trip was once again fruitless, and on his return he wrote the poem "Gas from a Burner", an invective against Roberts. After this trip, he never again came closer to Dublin than London, despite many pleas from his father and invitations from his fellow Irish writer William Butler Yeats.
They met in and became lasting friends and mutual critics. Schmitz was a Catholic of Jewish origin and became a primary model for Leopold Bloom; most of the details about the Jewish faith in Ulysses came from Schmitz's responses to queries from Joyce. He frequently discussed but ultimately abandoned a plan to import Irish tweed to Trieste. Correspondence relating to that venture with the Irish Woollen Mills were for a long time displayed in the windows of their premises in Dublin.
Joyce's skill at borrowing money saved him from indigence. What income he had came partially from his position at the Berlitz school and partially from teaching private students.
In , after most of his students in Trieste were conscripted to fight in the First World War, Joyce moved to Zurich. Two influential private students, Baron Ambrogio Ralli and Count Francesco Sordina, petitioned officials for an exit permit for the Joyces, who in turn agreed not to take any action against the emperor of Austria-Hungary during the war.
Watson agree that Joyce's interest in socialism and pacifistic anarchism continued for much of his life, and that both the form and content of Joyce's work reflect a sympathy for democratic and socialist ideas. Paris and Zurich[ edit ] In Paris, Portrait by Patrick Tuohy. Joyce set himself to finishing Ulysses in Paris, delighted to find that he was gradually gaining fame as an avant-garde writer. A further grant from Harriet Shaw Weaver meant he could devote himself full-time to writing again, as well as consort with other literary figures in the city.
During this time, Joyce's eyes began to give him more and more problems and he often wore an eyepatch. He was treated by Louis Borsch in Paris, undergoing nine operations before Borsch's death in Lucia was analysed by Carl Jung at the time, who after reading Ulysses is said to have concluded that her father had schizophrenia.
Were it not for their support along with Harriet Shaw Weaver's constant financial support , there is a good possibility that his books might never have been finished or published. In their literary magazine transition , the Jolases published serially various sections of Finnegans Wake under the title Work in Progress. Joyce returned to Zurich in late , fleeing the Nazi occupation of France. Joyce used his contacts to help some sixteen Jews escape Nazi persecution.
Early in life, he lapsed from Catholicism, according to first-hand testimonies coming from himself, his brother Stanislaus Joyce, and his wife: My mind rejects the whole present social order and Christianity—home, the recognised virtues, classes of life and religious doctrines. I found it impossible for me to remain in it on account of the impulses of my nature. I made secret war upon it when I was a student and declined to accept the positions it offered me.
By doing this I made myself a beggar but I retained my pride. Now I make open war upon it by what I write and say and do. Noon, Robert Boyle and others have argued that Joyce, later in life, reconciled with the faith he rejected earlier in life and that his parting with the faith was succeeded by a not so obvious reunion, and that Ulysses and Finnegans Wake are essentially Catholic expressions. Eliot believed they saw between the lines of Joyce's work the outlook of a serious Christian and that beneath the veneer of the work lies a remnant of Catholic belief and attitude.
They left a discipline, not a cultural heritage or a way of thinking. Like them, the writer retains the sense of blasphemy held as a liturgical ritual. But there was another Joyce who asserted his allegiance to that tradition, and never left it, or wanted to leave it, behind him. He acknowledged the debt he owed to his early Jesuit training.
Joyce told the sculptor August Suter , that from his Jesuit education, he had 'learnt to arrange things in such a way that they become easy to survey and to judge. He fell into a coma the following day. If possible find out did he die a Catholic?
Express sympathy with Mrs Joyce and explain inability to attend funeral". Nora, whom he had married in , survived him by 10 years. She is buried by his side, as is their son Giorgio, who died in