• The synoptic themes –what they mean, and the implications for teaching • Preparing for Paper 3 in the second year of the A level course • Managing and preparing for the demands of the examination. Examiner marked student responses for A level Paper 3 are available to download from our website. Designed as an introductory human geography textbook, this volume contains numerous essays that demonstrate time-space compression through the analysis of transnational corporations, tourism, global cities, and international flows of pollution. The introduction is priceless for its succinct and elegant synopsis of the concept. The study of how factors such as geography, economics, military capability and non-State actors affects the foreign policy of States. so geopolitics claims based upon it should be dismissed and the root of the problem (racism) should be the main issue addressed." and one of the most cringe-worthy, anti-semitic essays I have ever read. A Level Geography is highly regarded by both employers and Higher Education, including the prestigious Russell Group universities. In part this is because of the skills it helps you to develop, but also because you gain a knowledge and understanding of our planet. Oct 21, · 5. Geography Essays Geography notes - Words Geography & Maps Review Sheet Geography is the study of the earth’s surface and the forces (both natural and human) that shape it. Types of Geography: Cultural- The study of countries’ cultures (religion, languages, food).
It first surfaced in the English language in the 14th century, and by the 19th century it had evolved into a synonym for race.
By the midth century, ethnicity was used as a way to describe group identity based on a sharing of beliefs, norms, traditions, and practices. Within geography, the study of ethnicity permeates through a number of subdisciplines that include cultural, social, historical, economic, political, and urban geography, and the work of geographers emphasizes the spatial nature of ethnicity at multiple scales—from the nation to the body—focusing on individual and group place attachment.
In American academia, the study of ethnicity began in earnest with the work of sociologists from the Chicago school in the s that focused primarily on the formation and evolution of urban immigrant neighborhoods. Initially encapsulating essentialized notions of place attachment territoriality stemming from social Darwinism and environmental determinism, the meaning and use of ethnicity evolved into more of a socially constructed concept, replacing the politically loaded and controversial term race following the Second World War.
Assimilation theories dominated the social sciences in the United States from the s through the s, while strands of biological inheritance and race remained debatable within ethnic studies. The pluralist movement, beginning in the s in Anglo-American discourse, recast ethnicity as a way to reinforce minority rights and equality, a movement that promoted difference in hopes of thwarting discrimination. The s witnessed a flexibility in assimilation theory, and a rise in the constructivist movement.
Beginning in the s, a number of scholars adopted strands of postmodern, post-structural, and postcolonial thought in developing new ways of looking at the concept of ethnicity. A number of texts exist that trace the history and evolution of the concept of ethnicity.
To begin, Hiebert and Williams each offer generalized descriptions and a history of the word ethnicity, and demonstrate how the meaning of this word evolved over the past few centuries. Others, such as Fenton and Hutchinson and Smith , provide comprehensive overviews of the concept of ethnicity within the social sciences. Fenton covers many of the important controversies that surround the complex and dynamic notion of ethnicity, whereas Hutchinson and Smith is a collection of works from some of the important and influential thinkers on the topic throughout the 20th century.
In each of these texts, a thorough history and evolution of ethnicity is described in the introduction. Ethnicity is a concept that has been studied extensively within American and British sociology since the s, yet only in the past few decades has it expanded into other countries and infiltrated multiple disciplines.
In this context, Peach provides a number of the more recent themes and controversies, along with influential publications, that demonstrate how the concept of ethnicity is adopted within geography. Hiebert provides a thorough and concise explanation and succinct history of ethnicity, and he outlines the major themes of study within contemporary geography.
Hutchinson, John, and Anthony D. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, A compilation of essays from a number of prominent philosophers, theorists, and social scientists covering topics that form many of the important topics within ethnic studies.
Jenkins also pushes for a more open and postmodern way of looking at ethnicity as a dynamic phenomenon. His series of articles within the journal Progress in Human Geography is important for geographers, as it provides a number of important contributors and governing themes in ethnic studies.
Consent and Descent in American Culture. A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. By Raymond Williams, —