The Rock earning more than double 'Jungle Cruise' co-star Emily Blunt. Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson is unsurprisingly the highest-paid actor in Hollywood history—and deservingly so. Dec 13, · Harvey Weinstein was a passionate cinephile, a risk taker, a patron of talent in film, a loving father and a monster.. For years, he was my monster. Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film. 'For the specialist in the study of narrative structure, this is a solid and very perceptive exploration of the issues salient to the telling of a story-whatever the medium. Let's take a look at the story of the lost Star Wars sequel Star Wars: Splinter of the Mind's Eye, which was commissioned by George Lucas. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah
Frame story The literary device of stories within a story dates back to a device known as a " frame story ", where a supplemental story is used to help tell the main story. Typically, the outer story, or "frame" does not have much matter, and most of the bulk of the work consists of one or more complete stories told by one or more storytellers.
The earliest examples of "frame stories" and "stories within stories" were in ancient Egyptian and Indian literature , such as the Egyptian Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor  and Indian epics like the Ramayana , Seven Wise Masters , Hitopadesha and Vikram and the Vampire.
In Vishnu Sarma 's Panchatantra , an inter-woven series of colorful animal tales are told with one narrative opening within another, sometimes three or four layers deep, and then unexpectedly snapping shut in irregular rhythms to sustain attention. In the epic Mahabharata , the Kurukshetra War is narrated by a character in Vyasa 's Jaya, which itself is narrated by a character in Vaisampayana 's Bharata, which itself is narrated by a character in Ugrasrava's Mahabharata.
Another early example is the One Thousand and One Nights Arabian Nights , where the general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade.
In many of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narrated , and even in some of these, there are some other stories.
Within the story, after the murderer reveals himself, he narrates a flashback of events leading up to the murder. Within this flashback, an unreliable narrator tells a story to mislead the would-be murderer, who later discovers that he was misled after another character narrates the truth to him.
This perennially popular work can be traced back to Arabic , Persian , and Indian storytelling traditions. Mary Shelley 's Frankenstein has a deeply nested frame story structure, that features the narration of an Arctic explorer, who records the narration of Victor Frankenstein, who recounts the narration of his creation, who narrates the story of a cabin dwelling family he secretly observes.
Similarly, Roald Dahl 's story The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar is about a rich bachelor who finds an essay written by someone who learnt to "see" playing cards from the reverse side. The full text of this essay is included in the story, and itself includes a lengthy sub-story told as a true experience by one of the essay's protagonists, Imhrat Khan.
In Chaucer 's Canterbury Tales , the characters tell tales suited to their personalities and tell them in ways that highlight their personalities. The noble knight tells a noble story, the boring character tells a very dull tale, and the rude miller tells a smutty tale. Homer 's Odyssey too makes use of this device; Odysseus ' adventures at sea are all narrated by Odysseus to the court of king Alcinous in Scheria.
Other shorter tales, many of them false, account for much of the Odyssey. A well-known modern example of framing is The Princess Bride both the book and the movie. In the movie, a grandfather is reading the story of "The Princess Bride" to his grandson.
In the book, a more detailed frame story has a father editing a much longer but fictive work for his son, creating his own "Good Parts Version" as the book called it by leaving out all the parts that would bore a young boy. Both the book and the movie assert that the central story is from a book called "The Princess Bride" by a nonexistent author named S. Sometimes a frame story exists in the same setting as the main story. On the television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles , each episode was framed as though it were being told by Indy when he was older usually acted by George Hall , but once by Harrison Ford.
The same device of an adult narrator representing the older version of a young protagonist is used in the films Stand By Me and A Christmas Story , and the television show The Wonder Years.
Frame Stories in Music[ edit ] In The Amory Wars , a tale told through the music of Coheed and Cambria , tells a story for the first two albums but reveals that the story is being actively written by a character called the Writer in the third. During the album, the Writer delves into his own story and kills one of the characters, much to the dismay of the main character. The critically acclaimed Beatles album Sgt.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band is presented as a stage show by the fictional eponymous band, and one of its songs, "A Day in the Life" is in the form of a story within a dream.
Similarly, the Fugees album The Score is presented as the soundtrack to a fictional movie, as are several other notable concept albums , while Wyclef Jean 's The Carnival is presented as testimony at a trial. The majority of Ayreon 's albums outline a sprawling, loosely interconnected science fiction narrative, as do the albums of Janelle Monae. Jan Potocki 's The Manuscript Found in Saragossa — has an interlocking structure with stories-within-stories reaching several levels of depth.
The provenance of the story is sometimes explained internally, as in The Lord of the Rings by J. Tolkien , which depicts the Red Book of Westmarch a story-internal version of the book itself as a history compiled by several of the characters. The subtitle of The Hobbit "There and Back Again" is depicted as part of a rejected title of this book within a book, and The Lord of the Rings is a part of the final title. Also, in Don Quixote by Cervantes , there are many stories within the story that influence the hero's actions there are others that even the author himself admits are purely digressive.
A commonly independently anthologised story is " The Grand Inquisitor " by Dostoevsky from his long psychological novel The Brothers Karamazov , which is told by one brother to another to explain, in part, his view on religion and morality.
It also, in a succinct way, dramatizes many of Dostoevsky's interior conflicts. An example of a "bonus material" style inner story is the chapter "The Town Ho's Story" in Herman Melville 's novel Moby-Dick ; that chapter tells a fully formed story of an exciting mutiny and contains many plot ideas that Melville had conceived during the early stages of writing Moby-Dick—ideas originally intended to be used later in the novel—but as the writing progressed, these plot ideas eventually proved impossible to fit around the characters that Melville went on to create and develop.
Story within a story
Instead of discarding the ideas altogether, Melville wove them into a coherent short story and had the character Ishmael demonstrate his eloquence and intelligence by telling the story to his impressed friends. With the rise of literary modernism , writers experimented with ways in which multiple narratives might nest imperfectly within each other.
A particularly ingenious example of nested narratives is James Merrill 's modernist poem " Lost in Translation ". In Rabih Alameddine 's novel The Hakawati, or The Storyteller, the protagonist describes coming home to the funeral of his father, one of a long line of traditional Arabic storytellers.
Throughout the narrative, the author becomes hakawati an Arabic word for a teller of traditional tales himself, weaving the tale of the story of his own life and that of his family with folkloric versions of tales from Qur'an, the Old Testament, Ovid, and One Thousand and One Nights. Both the tales he tells of his family going back to his grandfather and the embedded folk tales, themselves embed other tales, often 2 or more layers deep. In Sue Townsend 's Adrian Mole: The Wilderness Years , Adrian writes a book entitled Lo!
Dreams are a common way of including stories inside stories, and can sometimes go several levels deep. Both the book The Arabian Nightmare and the curse of "eternal waking" from the Neil Gaiman series The Sandman feature an endless series of waking from one dream into another dream.
In Charles Maturin 's novel Melmoth the Wanderer , the use of vast stories-within-stories creates a sense of dream-like quality in the reader.
Religion and Philosophy[ edit ] This structure is also found in classic religious and philosophical texts. The structure of The Symposium and Phaedo , attributed to Plato , is of a story within a story within a story. In the Christian Bible , the gospels are retellings of stories from the life and ministry of Jesus. However, they also include within them the stories parables that Jesus told. In more modern philosophical work, Jostein Gaarder 's books often feature this device. Examples are The Solitaire Mystery, where the protagonist receives a small book from a baker, in which the baker tells the story of a sailor who tells the story of another sailor, and Sophie's World about a girl who is actually a character in a book that is being read by Hilde, a girl in another dimension.
Later on in the book Sophie questions this idea, and realizes that Hilde too could be a character in a story that in turn is being read by another. Nested science fiction[ edit ] The experimental modernist works that incorporate multiple narratives into one story are quite often science-fiction or science fiction influenced. These include most of the various novels written by the American author Kurt Vonnegut. Vonnegut includes the recurring character Kilgore Trout in many of his novels.
Trout acts as the mysterious science fiction writer who enhances the morals of the novels through plot descriptions of his stories.
Rosewater are sprinkled with these plot descriptions. All levels tell stories of the same person, Trurl. House of Leaves is the tale of a man who finds a manuscript telling the story of a documentary that may or may not have ever existed, contains multiple layers of plot. The book includes footnotes and letters that tell their own stories only vaguely related to the events in the main narrative of the book, and footnotes for fake books.
This hypothesis enables many writers who are characters in the books to interact with their own creations. Margaret Atwood 's novel The Blind Assassin is interspersed with excerpts from a novel written by one of the main characters; the novel-within-a-novel itself contains a science fiction story written by one of that novel's characters. As Dick's novel details a world in which the Axis Powers of World War II had succeeded in dominating the known world , the novel within the novel details an alternative to this history in which the Allies overcome the Axis and bring stability to the world — a victory which itself is quite different from our history.
Farmer a doubly recursive method is used to interwine its fictional layers. This novel is part of a science-fiction series, the World of Tiers. Farmer collaborated in the writing of this novel with an American psychiatrist, Dr. Giannini had previously used the World of Tiers series in treating patients in group therapy. During these therapeutic sessions, the content and process of the text and novelist was discussed rather than the lives of the patients.
In this way subconscious defenses could be circumvented. Farmer took the real life case-studies and melded these with adventures of his characters in the series. In Matthew Stover 's novel Shatterpoint , the protagonist Mace Windu narrates the story within his journal, while the main story is being told from the third-person limited point of view. The Motion Picture , J. Lawrence 's Mudd's Angels , John M. Rasmussen's "Research" in the anthology Star Trek: Strange New Worlds II.
The book Cloud Atlas later adapted into a film by The Wachowkis and Tom Tykwer consisted of six interlinked stories nested inside each other in a Russian doll fashion. The first story that of Adam Ewing in the s befriending an escaped slave is interrupted halfway through and revealed to be part of a journal being read by composer Robert Frobisher in s Belgium. His own story of working for a more famous composer is told in a series of letters to his lover Rufus Sixsmith, which are interrupted halfway through and revealed to be in the possession of an investigative journalist named Luisa Rey and so on.
Each of the first five tales are interrupt in the middle, with the sixth tale being told in full, before the preceding five tales are finished in reverse order. Each layer of the story either challenges the veracity of the previous layer, or is challenged by the succeeding layer. Presuming each layer to be a true telling within the overall story, a chain of events is created linking Adam Ewing's embrace of the abolitionist movement in the s to the religious redemption of a post apocalyptic tribal man over a century after the fall of modern civilization.
The characters in each nested layer take inspiration or lessons from the stories of their predecessors in a manner that validates a belief stated in the sixth tale that "Our lives are not our own.
We are bound to others, past and present and by each crime, and every kindness, we birth our future. The events of the play broadly mirror those of the novel and give the main character, Oedipa Maas, a greater context with which to consider her predicament; the play concerns a feud between two rival mail distribution companies, which appears to be ongoing to the present day, and in which, if this is the case, Oedipa has found herself involved.
As in Hamlet , the director makes changes to the original script; in this instance, a couplet that was added, possibly by religious zealots intent on giving the play extra moral gravity, are said only on the night that Oedipa sees the play.
From what Pynchon tells us, this is the only mention in the play of Thurn and Taxis' rivals' name—Trystero—and it is the seed for the conspiracy that unfurls. A significant portion of Walter Moers ' Labyrinth of Dreaming Books is an ekphrasis on the subject of an epic puppet theater presentation.
Another example is found in Samuel Delany 's Trouble on Triton , which features a theater company that produces elaborate staged spectacles for randomly selected single-person audiences.
In Manuel Puig 's Kiss of the Spider Woman , ekphrases on various old movies, some real, and some fictional, make up a substantial portion of the narrative. They additionally raise the question of whether works of artistic genius justify or atone for the sins and crimes of their creators.
Nested plays[ edit ] This dramatic device was probably first used by Thomas Kyd in The Spanish Tragedy around , where the play is presented before an audience of two of the characters, who comment upon the action. The action and characters in The Murder mirror the murder of Hamlet's father in the main action, and Prince Hamlet writes additional material to emphasize this. Hamlet wishes to provoke the murderer, his uncle, and sums this up by saying "the play's the thing wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king.
Later he tries to come between them, as Hamlet had done with his mother and her new husband. The tragic developments in the plot follow in part from the scorn the mother shows for her son's play.