A Study on Student´s Self-Control and Self-Concept Essay Words 8 Pages This study focuses on college students’ self-control and self-concept and their relationship to persistence and achievement within Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related majors. Self-awareness is “the ability to realize what we are doing as we do it, and understand why we are doing it.”(Pg. 20) So, first, if you need to find out the way to improve your self-control, you must exert your self-awareness to understand when and how your self-control can be lost control, which is so related with your physiological changes. self-control, especially if the reporting source is a parent. We note that because many of the parenting measures were taken contemporaneously with the measures of low self-control, that these models offer the highest likelihood of detecting parenting effects. Still, once clustering due to. Short Speech on Importance of Self Control! Rightly has it been remarked that is easy to talk of and write upon this subject but most difficult to possess it. Perfect Self-Control means infinite power. Only the Buddas and the Christs of this World manifested Perfect Self-Control. Self Control Essays: Over , Self Control Essays, Self Control Term Papers, Self Control Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access Order plagiarism free custom written essay The Importance of Ethics in Information Systems Information is a source of power and, increasingly.
- Self-control Academic Essay
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Its robustness is evident in the recent meta-analytic review by Pratt and Cullen , who found that, across various samples and measurement techniques, low self-control is a salient predictor of criminal behavior. With such support, it should be no surprise that low self-control theory continues to be at the heart of much criminological debate and investigation Geis, ; Marcus, ; Sampson and Laub, Indeed, it is this association that has generated the greatest amount of empirical interest.
Their hypotheses that link the development of self-control in children to parental behaviors, however, have been less frequently considered. Parents, they maintain, play the decisive role in either fostering or thwarting the development of low selfcontrol. Parents who fail to engage in such parental management techniques will subsequently fail to help their children develop the ability to resist situational temptations. Given the overwhelming support linking low self-control to crime and analogous behaviors Pratt and Cullen, , the paucity of research examining the factors that give rise to low self-control is somewhat surprising.
We have, for instance, been able to locate only a handful of empirical studies that test them. Even so, the quality of that evidence is circumspect, for reasons we will detail later. Gottfredson and Hirschi attribute the development of low self-control in children solely to parenting practices—rejecting outright potential genetic effects. Other authors have reached similar conclusions.
Her critique of the parenting research in general raises serious questions about the validity of many social science findings relating parenting practices to offspring conduct. The vast majority of research on parenting, she notes, typically employs samples that measure one child and one parent, usually the mother, under the assumption that inferences can be made to other children in the household Rowe, ; Walsh, More detailed research has revealed, however, that parents enjoy differential relationships with their children.
They may treat one with hostility, yet pamper another Harris, Children too, when asked, often report substantial differences in their perceptions of their parents Reiss, Neiderhiser, Hetherington and Plomin, It is these micro-environments, or child-specific parenting behaviors as opposed to measures of global parenting, that likely differentiate children.
Such micro-environments are typically not examined with standard social methodologies SSM see also Walsh, Nor do SSMs account for commonalities due to genetic similarities.
Findings from a broad array of studies converge to show that many temperamental factors are highly heritable Caspi, Roberts and Shiner, Their daughters, in turn, are more likely to be hostile and cold. Our purpose here is twofold. First, we examine the effects of parenting on levels of self-control in kindergarten and first-grade children.
We do so with a national dataset that contains mother and teacher reports of child self-control. Second, and more important, we also use a sample of twins, taken from the same dataset, to assess the influence of parenting factors. The use of a twin dataset allows us to account for the shared genetic variance between twins.
Moreover, we use hierarchical linear regression HLM analyses to control for the clustering of observations caused by genetic similarities. We contrast results garnered through traditional social science methodologies with those generated from the sample of twins. The interpretation of parenting correlations with child behavioral outcomes is made difficult by at least three factors: First, parents and their children share genes.
Self-control Academic Essay
Second, external biological factors, such as neurotoxins, may influence both parent and child behavior. Third, temporal ordering is very difficult to establish. Child traits and behaviors likely influence parenting behaviors and vice versa. These variables were used as indicators for a latent measure of supervision.
Children whose parents were vigilant, had, on average, more self-control see also Lynskey, Winfree, Esbensen and Clason, ; Pratt, Turner and Piquero, Similarly, two additional studies, conducted by Gibbs and his associates, examined retrospective accounts of parental management practices on levels of self-control in a sample of college students. The first—Gibbs, Giever and Martin —found tentative support for the role parents play in fostering low self-control.
Likewise, Gibbs, Giever and Higgins performed another analysis on a sample of college students, again using SEMs. Their findings paralleled those reported in their study. Similar results were garnered in a study replicated by Higgins Hay also examined the effects of parenting on low self-control in a sample of urban high school students.
Their analysis also included the two parenting measures—monitoring and discipline—along with a selfreport measure of low self-control in his analyses. Hay also analyzed an alternative model that combined the two parenting scales into one monitoring-discipline measure. More recently, Unnever, Cullen, and Pratt found evidence linking parenting practices to offspring low self-control.
Data for their study came from 2, middle school students in Virginia. Similar to Hay , Unnever and his associates employed measures of parental monitoring and of consistent punishment.
Self-awareness and Self-control Essay
Under the assumptions of SSMs, parenting practices appear to have some influence on offspring low self-control. The strength of the relationship between parenting practices and child self-control, however, appears to be moderate at best.
More important, as we will show, there is reason to cast doubt over the validity of this body of research. A large body of literature, however, has arrived at a very different conclusion.
In a recent study that examined heritability of attention problems in twins drawn from the Netherlands Twin Registry, Rietveld and colleagues found that heritability estimates varied between. The effects of parental ADHD were stronger than fetal exposure to drugs, alcohol, and cigarette smoke, than having a low birth weight, and than being born into an economically disadvantaged family. These findings suggest that even when common 2.
Some studies do attempt to control partially for child effects, such as Hay and Unnever et al. Others do not rely on parental reports and instead utilize individual recollections of parenting behaviors Gibbs et al.
Attention problems, problems with hyperactivity, and problems with impulsivity have repeatedly been shown to have a substantial genetic component. These capacities are housed in the frontal, orbital-frontal and prefrontal cortex of the brain, which are part of the larger frontostriatal system Aron, Robbins and Poldrack, ; Bradshaw, ; Miller and Cohen, Various neuroscientists have recognized the overlap between executive functions and concepts drawn from other fields.
The mechanism s for impulsive behavior remain unclear. However, most brain researchers would agree that the frontal lobes are crucial in complex tasks when planning is required and that their main function is inhibitory or regulatory Moreover, data from numerous neuroimaging studies vividly show these areas of the brain to be under substantial genetic control.
We note that the brain is also highly intertwined with its immediate environment. Environmental stimulation aides in synaptogenesis; likewise, a lack of environmental stimulation accelerates neuronal apoptosis. We are not the first to recognize the possibility that low self-control may be under substantial genetic control.
Unnever and associates Following this advice, we examine the influence of parenting factors on a measure of child self-control in a sample of kindergarten and first-grade students.
Why Self-Control is More Important Than Self-Esteem
We also employ, from the same sample, a subsample of twins, and contrast our genetically informed findings against those detected through common SSM assumptions. Sponsored by the U. Information about such topics was obtained through interviews with the children, their parents and teachers, and school administrators. Four waves of data have been collected thus far: Data collection for wave one began in the fall of , when the children first entered into kindergarten.
The second wave of questionnaires were administered the following spring The last two waves of data were obtained during the fall and spring of the first grade — Only a small subgroup of students, however, were interviewed in the fall of their first grade.
Sampling waves assessed during the kindergarten year were measured less than 6 months apart.
Some of the parenting measures, moreover, were asked only during the spring term. Given the relatively small time difference between sampling waves, we treat all data collected during the practices…low self-control is not a purely social outcome but is also affected by genetic predispositions.
However, we use the measures of child low self-control measured during the spring to maintain temporal ordering. Data from the fall wave of the first grade were excluded from the analysis, making the interval between consecutive measurement periods kindergarten year to spring term of their first grade , about one year. Both twins were subject to identical data collection processes and instruments.
In terms of cluster size, each twin was reported on by the parent usually the mother , their teacher and in some instances the mother and the teacher.
With such a large overall sample, very small differences could easily reach levels of statistical significance. We chose a sample size of 1, for two reasons. First, most national studies have sample sizes that range from 1, to 2, subjects. First, the inclusion of twins permits us to control for the genetic similarity. Third, the ECLS-K contains childhood measures of low self-control, allowing us to examine the early correlates of low self-control.
And, finally, because multiple reporting sources were used, we were able to construct theoretically consistent measures of low self-control based on parent and teacher reports. Taken together, the ECLS-K provides us with a rich data source with which to systematically assess the biological and social origins of low self-control.
The SSRS is a multi-rater, standardized, normed-referenced assessment battery based on information collected from mothers and teachers. The SSRS contains subscales that tap into child self-control, including overactivity and hyperactivity. Research into the psychometric properties of the SSRS has found the scales and subscales to be high in reliability, moderate in test-retest reliability, and valid Benes, ; Gresham, Parental reports, although used widely, are slightly less reliable than information gathered from other sources.
Data from teachers, however, have proven to be highly efficient and reliable and help measure conduct that occurs away from parents Cairns and Cairns, ; Harris, To test the robustness of our findings, we also employed an expanded measure of low self-control. This scale taps not only into the attention problems outlined, but also into various social problems experienced by children lacking self-control and deficient decision-making processes that often accompany low self-control.
This expanded scale contains the following eight items: The same measures were used to create the expanded measure of low self-control during first grade twin 5. The measurement of self-control, or executive control functions in general, is still a matter of substantial debate. This debate has not escaped criminology.