Tips on Writing a Research Paper Introduction on a Controversial Topic: To write a good introduction, you have to provide the readers with clues to what the paper is going to be about. Stay close to the point and keep the introduction short. As your topic is controversial, make it clear what position you take on . Abortion Research Paper Abortion has been a major topic of debate based on morality and civil rights throughout history. Citizens have opposed each other’s ideas of how to address abortion for decades. Abortion is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo before viability.[note 1] An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is often called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced. The term abortion is commonly used to refer to the induced abortion, and this is the abortion, which has been filled with controversy. In the developed nations, induced abortions are the safest form of medical procedures in medicine if they are conducted under the local law. Even though an abortion can harm your body, women still get them and take the risk of future health problems or even death. In this essay you will learn the pros and cons of having an abortion. This paper will explain all of the harmful ways abortions can harm your body and also how they may affect you in a positive and in a negative way.
Bibliography Introduction Traditionally, abortion can be described as 'expulsion of the fetus before it is viable'. This may comprise miscarriage or spontaneous abortion or induced abortion in which someone - the woman herself, a doctor, or a layperson- causes the abortion. Abortion is considered as one of the most controversial, difficult, and painful subjects in the contemporary society.
The main controversy revolves around the issues of who executes the decision related to abortion, the state or the individual; under which conditions it could be done; and who is authorized of making the decision.
Medical issues like techniques of abortion are considered controversial; however there is sometimes part of debate at a large scale.
Research Methodology Research Design Concentrating on the issue of abortion and how serious is the problem along with presenting the strategies to encounter the problem the purpose is to construct an applied model inflicting a methodology that permits for penetration of secondary data related to the key aspects of abortion.
Research Paper on Abortion
The abortion issue was not an important predictor when offered to every predictive paradigm. Selecting an Appropriate Research Methodology The choice for research methodology is derived from hypothesis about the gravity of abortion and the manner in which its impact could be managed is assessed. From theoretical concept to the practical scenario, the study of abortion issue, its positive and negative impacts along with follow up of different views are specifically challenging tasks.
Contributing in and observing behavior of women involved in abortion would thus challenge the researcher with events that highly are compound, continuously altering and are subject to constant re-evaluation in due course.
The analysis of different preventive strategies to show what is being done to confront the problem and opinions of groups on both sides- favoring or opposing- assumes that issue should be properly understood and only then a conclusive argument should be formed backed by extensive research. The empirical study made in this regard suggests adopting a particular design that links understanding gravity of issue with adopting measures to confront the problem. Without studying these significant links and analyzing preventive measures are indeed an act done in isolation.
Literature Review Abortion- Background- Controversies and Conflicts Abortion is not a new issue in human society; studies showed that more than three hundred contemporary nonindustrial societies practiced abortion. Abortions had been performed by women on themselves and also experienced abortion at the hands of different persons for thousands of years.
Abortions continue to take place today in developing areas under supervision of medical experts and medically primitive conditions. Modern technology as well as social change, however, has made abortion a part of modern healthcare system. Abortion, at the same time, has also become a political issue in some of the societies and a flash point for controversies or disagreements regarding role of women and individual sovereignty in the major decisions of life.
Different social responses to abortion range from those of personal and women's immediate circle of friends and family to the community, organizational, and even national levels. Every society and culture has particular ways of confronting with unwanted or unplanned pregnancy and with abortion. Such traditions are altering swiftly in the modern world. Wicklund, At the most fundamental level, unplanned pregnancy results from a failure of the complicated and balancing act engaged in by most females and male to reconcile two different aspects of their lives; the wish and the sexual intercourse or reluctance to have children.
Contraceptive usage could mediate the tension between the two; however contraception is not always available and as such entire methods may fail. People's attempts, however, to reconcile sexual intercourse and the wish for children may not take place in a vacuum.
The level of control by a women over the phenomenon whether she has sexual intercourse and over how and when many children she has is mostly impacted by her age, religious and cultural background, and economic and social position in the society.
Furthermore, in addition to the long-standing and persistent economic and social disparities between men and women, within and between nations, and a highly inequitable distribution of the resources available in the world, some new and possibly even more weakened social forces have entered the scenario.
Baumgardner Civil wars, the resurgence of organized genocide, suppressed ethnic rivalries, famine, the virtual collapse of civil communities, and the destruction wrought by AIDS in different nations- all are likely to undermine and disrupt the capability of women and men in controlling their own as well as the lives of their families, including their reproductive lives. The reproductive costs and consequences of sexual intercourse are often far more serious and more lasting for women compared with men.
The physical expression related to sexuality is universal and fundamental. What differs is how religious, cultures, and societies influence and construe both the setting in which sexual intercourse between women and men takes place and the nature of relationships in which pregnancy is discouraged or encouraged. Most religious and societies approve of sexual intercourse and eventually childbearing only in the spectrum of marriage and seem to discourage people from possessing sexual partners outside marriage.
The ideal for most of the world is that any woman starts to live with a man or marries, they have children together, and the couple performs their best to stay together for the rest of their lives. However, in some societies, men and women have sexual intercourse prior to marriage and between their marriages and also with partner other than their spouse. The level to do so varies within and among nations. Comm Moral Dilemmas Abortion creates mix feelings in societies highlighting basic differences as well as conflicting point-of-view compared with most of the public or social health complications.
It is a grave concern sensitive to distinctive interpretations with disruptive public policy apprehensions. The fundamental concept that a woman may chose with her consent for abortion is a disturbing idea to a huge segment of society. However, proponents of abortion including human and health rights champions argue that specific laws banning abortion seems to neglect the grave effects of unwanted pregnancies but show only disregard for women's capability for making independent and moral decisions.
It is pertinent to mention that abortion has, in fact, existed in almost every society, however, intensely opposed by religions and governments. Baumgardner Abortion was legally acknowledged in Europe in the twentieth century with some countries such as Germany and Spain being exception and regards it as illegal. In this context, it is necessary that governments should consider the phenomenon whether to allow or not unsafe abortions that are serious threats not only to the health of women but in several cases relates to survival of women and their families.
Proponents of allowing abortions raise the question whether it is legally and morally plausible for the individuals, society, and governments to ignore this human rights issue creating health inequalities intrinsic in the policies and regulations related to abortion existing in several countries. Cochrane Advocates of abortion regard it as the deliberate murder of an innocent life and therefore a moral dilemma whether or not legally acceptable. But morality and law are interrelated as such abortion is legally considered as killing a life in several parts of the world.
Abortion, however, remains as one of the most significant social and moral issues in the world. One group emphasizes the idea of saving human life as conception at any particular cost to such point of placing life at the top priority to the life of the fetus still to be born over the life of mother.
The other group, however, signifies that any woman possesses the right to control her body being an independent soul to the point of preserving her right over the natural fact of development of a new life. Cochrane The group having opinion that abortion is morally justifiable and legally acceptable emphasizes that a fetus or embryo not able to survive outside mother's womb should not be considered as a human being different from her mother's body.
Others believe that human life only starts with the nervous system. Group opposite to abortion asserts that it is, in fact, illogical when a fetus or an embryo is considered as a separate human life.
Some believe that a fetus is not able of self-awareness or thought necessary for human being and as such does not posses a right of survival. Gorman 88 The moral dilemma of pregnancy underlies specific reasons related to unplanned pregnancy or deliberate abortions are common in most of the societies. Many women, whether or not married, without intentions of becoming pregnant are also not using any particular contraceptive method.
Some of them also use such methods that provide inadequate protection against pregnancy. Furthermore, there are some areas where women have low access to safe contraceptives are not aware from where to obtain them. There is a huge number of couples having inadequate resources and struggling to raise their families. They find it difficult to afford more children and as such acknowledge the phenomenon that any type of unplanned pregnancy could result in a disaster for their family including dependent parents and children.
In many developing countries, the idea of unmarried woman having a baby is unacceptable and as such is related to the morality dilemma.
Devereux Similar to the sexual impulse, the desire to childbearing is almost universal and fundamental. Most of the people desire to have a family at any time in their lives. However, attitudes related to ideal family size and also the best time having children are mostly the outcome of cultural values, social expectations, and economic circumstances. The desire for small families in the modern world has intensified especially in most of the developing nations since the decade of Comm Catholic Moral Teaching on Abortion The issue of abortion is not new to the society but has always remained a grave concern creating conflict or controversies emerging from the exposure of embryonic human life along with attitudes towards it.
Several religions including some denominations inside Christianity have accepted the rule that abortion is killing a human life if it is done after soul have entered human body of a fetus or an embryo.
However many popes and church authorities differ in the timing as some of them are of the view of considering it at a particular time such as forty or eighty days whereas others placed the time when the women first develop feeling of fetus movement. It is, however, pertinent to mention that the traditional stance of church has changed with the passage of time as in the past the Catholic Church considered abortion equal to murder and evil, whether any particular abortion is not a murder if only performed to save the life of woman.
This opinion or stance of Catholic teaching has been changed from its start in which Church had always remained against the practice of abortion. In other words, the Church had always been involved in controversies related to the laws allowing or favoring abortion.
For the Christians in early times, life was regarded as a gift from the God. Through Gospel message, the gift of life eventually received extra value that anticipated the process of birth and excelled death. Famous religions of the world also deal with the issue of abortion. Judaism consider fetus as a human-being not fully developed.
As such, to kill a fetus is not considered as a murder in Judaism. Islam, on the other hand, is against abortion allowing it only in circumstances to save life of woman. Hinduism treats abortion as the act of violence while Buddhism considers abortion an act against nature.
Devereux In Evangelical Churches, abortion is regarded equivalent to infanticide and unnatural. However, a segment of Protestant Churches favors abortion if performed to save life. Even though abortion is not described or criticized particularly in the Gospels of the New Testament, sufficient evidence exist about the sanctity of intrauterine life in Luke, Chapter 1 narrating the story of unborn Christ and also unborn John the Baptist. In fact, abortion was condemned vividly in Christian teaching in 'Didache', being the oldest source of Ecclesiastical law.
Didache is the ancient and first century document containing early Christian teachings. The Didache comprises five different parts. One of its chapters Didache 2: You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not seduce boys.
You shall not commit fornication. You shall not steal. You shall not practice magic. You shall not use potions. You shall not procure an abortion, nor destroy a newborn child. Eggebroten After Didache, the explicit condemnation of abortion has remained an integral part of Christian teachings as Pope John Paul II affirmed in the year that teaching of Church on the subject of abortion remains unchanged and a grave moral disorder. He re-confirmed the stance of Catholic Church on the subject of abortion as killing an innocent human life.
Banning of abortion being a direct cause of death of a fetus is an integral component of Christian teachings. However, in the modern science there are certain medical procedures that indirectly result in the death of fetus of embryo.
Catholic Churches, in the contemporary world, regard such procedures as a moral option. O'Neill Direct Abortion and Acts of God as per Christianity One of the main features of Christianity teaching is its emphasis on human life that should be protected and is valuable at every stage.
Since abortion is meant to end the life, Christianity regards it as a moral disorder. The premeditated or planned killing of a human life, especially an innocent life at its inception is condemned in the Christianity teachings.
The deliberate or planned abortion is considered as an abominable crime for which a penalty of excommunication should be given.